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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  Tadj ol-Molouk: The Queen of Two Courts of Pahlavi 

Niloufar Kasra

Contemporary history of Iran is full of actions and reactions that are rooted in centuries and Iranian women form a stronger and more tangible role in this arena. In Pahlavi’s period- especially after Shahrivar 1320- women had great influence and even in some events they played a major role.
One of these women is Tadj ol-Molouk Ayromlou the second wife of Reza Shah and had a great influence on the both courts of Pahlavi. In 1295 she married with Reza Shah. At the time, Reza Shah was forty and is Tadj ol-Molouk was 25 years old. Reza Khan rent a house in the neighborhood of Sanglaj and within 5 years had four children (two girls and two boys). After the coup of 3rd Esfand 1299, Reza Khan became secretary of war and named “Sardar Sepah”; and then became the Prime Minister, then Commander in Chief and finally became king. Tadj ol-Molouk took great advantage of this and for 53 years was the First Lady of Pahlavi court (father and son). During the reign of Shah, she only the Lady Courtier and the Queen of Iran and was never allowed to involve in politics but served in finance issues. Morad Abad village located in Karaj which belongs to Abolfath Mirza became her property and develop the plantation by using the local troops. Later, much of the land went on sale with expensive price and put the name “Shahdokht” on them. A huge palatial palace was built there and she earned a heavy amount of annual sales. Tadj ol-Molouk was a fan of promotion of Western culture in Iran's court. The sense specially increased after her trips to Germany, Switzerland and France to meet Mohammad Reza in 1312. She established European style of costly receptions in Iran. At first, parties were included princes and women of the court but later, in unveiling period (abolition of the veil (which Tadj ol-Molouk played a major role in it, the parties would form mixed such as the European Court ones. She played an important role in her son and daughter’s weddings and separations, especially in the case of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After the departure of Reza Shah of Iran in Shahrivar 1320, she was known as "Queen Mother". Reza Shah’s letters to her were emphasized on maintaining the Pahlavi dynasty and enhanced her strength and reliability. Her involvement in politics began in 1320 and became familiar and commuting with such great consistency like Ghavam, Bayat and Sa’ed; so that some of her demands were accepted. After the death of Reza Shah, Tadj ol-Molouk married with Gholam Hossien Sahebdivani. Sahebdivani was homeowner of Shiraz and wanted to be a representation in the Parliament. So, however, he used the influence of his wife and resigned from the Fasa Fund and became a representation in Parliament. But after a while, his relationship with the queen went bad and gradually fell apart between the two. The Queen Mother was active in politics issues with the help of Shams and sometimes with the help of Ashraf. For example, appointment of Hazhir was of Shams and her efforts. Later, in doctor Mossadegh’s period, the Queen Mother was a staunch opponent of him. With assist of Ashraf Pahlavi, she formed an opponent side against Mossadegh. She was associated with some oppositions of the doctor in Parliament, including Jamal Emami, M.A. Nosratian, M.A. Shoushtari, M. Teimurtash, M. Pirasteh and was a major pressure pole against Mossadegh. The action was so intense that doctor Mossadegh ordered to exile the Queen Mother and her daughter, Ashraf.
After the coup of 1332, the queen began her new life with prosperity. In addition to involve in their children’s life, she started domestic and foreign trade and investment and within a short time became one of the great capitalists. She lived for 35 years with strength in Pahlavi’s court and then she fled to her palace in the U.S. before the 1979 revolution and was living there with her daughter, Shams. Shortly after her disease was diagnosed and hospitalized. Finally, in disbelief of deportation and death of his son, Mohammad Reza, died in one of the hospitals in the United States while was completely alone.

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