Seyyed Mostafa Taghavi
Nomads tribes within themselves and due to other tribes and the central government, whether in the shape of combating against the central state or defending it against strangers invade or the internal insurgent have observed numerous bitter and sweet incidents throughout history.
On the other hand, each tribe always within itself, naturally or by inciting the central state had conflicts with other tribes to gain power. Furthermore each tribe due to various causes, including resistance against heavy taxes or other extortions and aggressive measures combat against the central governments. In Rezashah’s period all kinds of the above mentioned incident happed with more intense. The question which this article intends to answer it is whether the fights between the nomads and Rezashah had the quiddity as the nomad’s battle with the ex-governors.
The paper’s theory says that as the nature of Rezashah’s reign was different from the previous rulers, so his policy on nomads differs with the previous ruler’s policy naturally. Therefore the nomads combat against him is different from the previous fighting against the ex-dynasties.
Two powerful neighbors of the north and the south of Iran had made Iran the domain influence and practically Iran had been turned into the arena of the political, economic and military competition for them.
They passed on many kinds of political, economic and military pressures to Iran to achieve further concessions and materialize their dominance.
Their one known approach was debilitating the central state and boosting the local and tribal power vis-à-vis the central authority as it necessarily used as the pressure lever to achieve their goals.
Throughout Qajar era, British and Russian states applied this policy in Iran, but at the late years of Qajar dynasty in 1296(1917) during the World War I the communist revolution occurred and so the Russian internal and foreign policy changed basically.
After this date any government which reached at the helm should imply the political, economic and cultural goals of the Britain. The first measure done by the Britain was closing the famous 1919 contract with Vosoughdolle cabinet. This contract opposed by all patriotic men of that time by ayatollah Seyed Hassan Modarres leadership and eventually nullified. The British governments which suffered a defeat in achieving its ends in the stage paid its attention to more radical changes in Iran. The necessity of these changes was staging a government to be able to materialize the British political, economic and cultural aims. Therefore studied on the cases appropriate for this mission and negotiate with some of them and finally preferred Reza khan Mirpanc and supported and urged him for this mission.
Thus it is clear that the coup government had a new mission and for this reason it’s naturally different the content of Sir Persey Loren’s letter, the authorized ambassador of great Britain dated on 10/Jan/1923 to India’s regent proves this issue vividly. He says in the letter, « In fact there are some work which Sardar Sepah by having small resources and devices is about to accomplish them, are those drawn on the British counselors if the 1919 contract was passed».
Rezashah’s policy was the effect and birth of the missions and a parts of his foreign supporters aims. Understanding Rezashah’s measures nationwide on nomads is possible within this analysis, neglecting the international syntax and world politics of that time and the foreign goals which led him to gain power and also the lack of systematic view point and not forging a logical relationship between the British government aims and Rezashah’s measures makes some people contradict in analyzing his policy and measure on nomads and stay in ambiguity and keep aloof from realistic justice.
Migration, rifle and cultural beliefs (religious and rituals) consists social life basis of nomads in economic, security and cultural dimensions. Rezashah’s policy on nomads based on three elements: settle in towns, disarmament and cultural inroad. These three elements were in conflict with three backbones of nomad’s life. Clearly if his measures had the specifications of original development program and arose from the actual needs of the society, people would naturally participate in and lead to popular acclaim. But the nomad society in Iran did not observe any logical relationship between Rezashah’s policy and his original development and renovation program. Not only the nomads community but also the fair researchers couldn’t find out the relationship between development and advancement program with the measures such as prevention religious ceremony holding or even Shahname reading, repression clergymen and defrocking them, altering men’s clothes and obliging them to liking to western clothes, unveiling women and making them attend in public circles and hailing state officials, etc.
Kohkuliye &Boyerahmad nomads were part of nomads society in Iran where Rezashah’s policy as mentioned Implied on them. The history of this region shows that these nomads never had unreasonable animosity towards the central government and even if necessity occurs in defending the country or providing the internal security had helped. These people combat against kings and despots who oppressed them. Their behavior toward Rezashah was such a so. Eventually when they understand Rezashah’s policy on nomads was bare of logic and aimed their social identity and life ravage fought him.
The remarks of some heads of Kohkilooye&Boyerahmad tribes and the learned clergymen of this time which have been written or said by heart witness the issue.
More important than those remarks is the region learned clergymen stance on Rezashah’s policy Mr.Mirali safdar Taghavi the prominent erudite of Kohkilooye in this period has pithy and informative poems about Rezashah’s policy which shows his profound vision on political information.
The entire text of this article was published in Iranian Institute of contemporary history quarterly no 4, in 1998 winter issue.